Advanced Learn about lithium-ion batteries in 1 article

Advanced: Learn about lithium-ion batteries in 1 best article

Table of Contents

The materials of lithium-ion batteries are mainly composed of positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, copper foil, and separator. Since material quality directly affects the performance of lithium-ion batteries, major companies are constantly researching various material technology routes to obtain high-performance, low-cost lithium-ion batteries, so as to achieve product upgrades and iterations. Below, the main materials of lithium-ion battery will be introduced one by one. The widespread application of lithium-ion battery technology has revolutionized portable electronics.

(1) Lithium-ion batteries positive electrode material

There are three main categories of cathode materials: lithium iron phosphate materials, ternary materials, and lithium manganate materials.

Lithium iron phosphate material: It has the advantages of good safety and low cost. It is the mainstream battery cathode material in my country and is widely used.

Ternary material: It has the advantages of high charging rate and good low-temperature performance. At the same time, its theoretical energy density is 60% higher than that of lithium iron phosphate, so it has a lot of room for development.

Lithium manganate material: It has the advantages of low cost, high voltage and high rate, but its energy density is low and it is mainly used in two-wheeled electric vehicles.

(2) Lithium-ion batteries negative electrode material

Anode materials are divided into graphite anode materials and new anode materials. Graphite anode materials include artificial graphite and natural graphite. New anode materials include silicon-based anode materials, lithium titanate and other materials.

Natural graphite: It is a commonly used negative electrode material at present. It is made from natural flake crystalline graphite through processes such as crushing, spheroidization, classification, purification, and surface treatment. It is mainly used in the field of consumer batteries.

Artificial graphite: Made from petroleum coke, needle coke and other raw materials through crushing, granulation, classification, and high-temperature graphitization. It has the advantages of long cycle, high-temperature storage, and high magnification.

Silicon-based negative electrode material: The theoretical gram capacity is high, about 10 times that of graphite, and has great development potential. At present, it is difficult to mass-produce silicon-based anodes due to shortcomings such as large volume expansion and high cost.

Lithium titanate: a new type of negative electrode material, which appears as a white powder with a cubic structure, has a high melting point and is insoluble in water.

advanced lithium ion batteries
advanced lithium ion batteries

(3) Electrolyte

Lithium battery electrolyte is the medium for migration and charge transfer of lithium-ion batteries. Researchers are constantly striving to enhance the efficiency of the battery system used in renewable energy applications. It conducts ions between the positive and negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and determines the energy density, power density and other properties of lithium-ion batteries. According to different downstream products, electrolytes can be divided into digital electrolytes and power energy storage electrolytes.

3C digital electrolyte: refers to the electrolyte used in 3C digital battery products. It has the characteristics of excellent high temperature and normal temperature cycle performance, good high temperature and anti-inflation performance, etc.

Power energy storage electrolyte: It has the characteristics of excellent normal temperature cycle performance, excellent high-temperature storage performance, good low-temperature discharge performance, good manganese dissolution inhibition, excellent high-temperature cycle performance, and good inhibition of lithium titanate anode gas expansion.

(4) Copper foil

Copper foil is a cathode electrolytic material made of copper or copper alloy through rolling or electrolysis. It is an important material for copper clad laminates (CCL), printed circuit boards (PCB), and lithium batteries. It is used as a conductor for PCBs. According to different application fields, copper foil can be divided into electronic copper foil, lithium battery copper foil and electronic shielding copper foil.

Electronic copper foil: mainly used in the production of copper-clad laminates and printed circuit boards.

Lithium battery copper foil: As a negative electrode current collector, it collects the current generated by the battery’s active materials to produce a larger output current, and is thinner than electronic copper foil.

Copper foil for electromagnetic shielding: It has excellent conductivity and provides electromagnetic shielding effect.

(5) Diaphragm

The separator is located between the positive electrode and the negative electrode. Its main function is to separate the active materials of the positive and negative electrodes and prevent the two electrodes from short-circuiting due to contact. According to different production processes, separators can be divided into dry separators, wet separators and coated films.

Dry separator: simple process, no pollution, low cost, but low production efficiency, used in low-cost and high-safety power and energy storage battery fields.

Wet separator: Wet separator is thin, not easy to tear, and more functional, but has a low melting point, poor safety, and high overall cost.

Coating film: high thermal stability, low thermal shrinkage, high wettability with electrolyte, and good safety.

incorporate lithium ion batteries for efficient storage
incorporate lithium ion batteries for efficient storage